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Kazakhstan

Description

Mission -The Kazakh Research Institute of Cottonprovids a wide range of scientific and technical services for development of cotton feeding and discovers new ways of cultivation of cotton, melons and perennial grass on irrigated lands.

Specialty:

Cotton cultivation; melons and forage; soil development, irrigation of cotton and other crops, increasing in productivity of irrigated lands.

The history of Kazakh Research Institute of Cotton begins with the decision of the Central Executive Committee and Council of People’s Commissars dd. July 12, 1927 creating on the territory of the farm “Pakhtaaral” the Experimental Irrigation Station, which was engaged in examinations of soils throughout the farm, development and improvement of farming techniques for cotton on soils prone to salinization in the Hunger steppe.

The year 2015. According to the decision of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan dd. September 18, 2015, the Kazakh Research Institute of Cotton Limited Liability Partnership has been transferred to the newly established non-profit joint stock company National Agricultural Research and Education Center under the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The Kazakh Research Institute of Cotton Limited Liability Partnership includes the head unit (160525 South Kazakhstan region, Maktaaral district Atakent village) and Shardara branch (160021 South Kazakhstan region Shardara district Usyn-Ata village), through which the research works on cotton cultivation, melon and perennial grasses cultivation, on irrigation, reclamation of saline soils and improvement of irrigated lands productivity are performed. Implemented the operative communication with local government, public institutions and cotton agro-formations of the South Kazakhstan region.

In the early years of establishment the experimental irrigation station consisted of two divisions: soil treatment and reclamation and irrigation group, which have employed 12 people in total, including 7 research assistants and 5 technicians. Then, due to increase in the service area, in 1940, four divisions have been formed: agricultural techniques, land reclamation and irrigation, plant protection and agricultural chemistry, and 24 people have worked for these divisions.

The station has dealt mainly with the study of cotton contour irrigation, flood and sprinkling irrigation; sowing dates, effect of various forecrops on cotton yield. In the study of these issues it was found that the repeated soil treatments and flood irrigation have compacted the soil and sharply raised the ground water, which was the cause of soil re-salinization. In this regard, all the forces of the experimental station have been directed toward finding specific control measures to prevent re-salinization of soil in the farm “Pakhtaaral”, taking into account the logistical capabilities of that time.

In pre-war times, the station workers have paid a lot of attention to development of cotton fertilizer system, the study of the role of individual feed elements for mineral fertilizers and manure in increasing in cotton yields.

During the war and post-war years, monitoring of groundwater in the farm “Pakhtaaral” was performed systematically in order to study factors of their formation. The effectiveness of legume-grass mixtures for different cotton farming rotations were studied in conditions of soils prone to salinization. Numerous studies of cotton and alfalfa agro-technics were studied too, as well as plant protection and defoliation of cotton, soil microbiology, agricultural economics, cotton breeding and seed production, and other issues.

As a result of many years of field and laboratory studies, a cotton cultivation technology was developed that provided 40 – 45 and more hundredweights of raw cotton per hectare of irrigated field, which was confirmed by economic activity of the leader of Soviet cotton cultivation – the farm “Pakhtaaral” and advanced farm “Algabas” in Pakhtaaral district. According to the results of scientific research of the experimental station, such advanced methods have been implemented in agriculture, as the precise sowing, use of water from drainage wells for irrigation, differentiation of washing irrigation rates depending on soils salinity degree and groundwater level, and others.

Today the cotton cultivation is being developed steady thanks to government support of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Innovative research and development, and selection achievements of the Institute have increased the competitiveness of Kazakh cotton. Based on implementation of domestic varieties and science based technologies integrated with the production, the average yield of cotton in region reached up to 28-32 hwt/ha, and some advanced agricultural producers get 45-50 hwt of raw cotton per hectare. The Kazakhstani cotton fiber of “domestic varieties” is exported to more than 10 countries – Russia, Belarus, Germany, Latvia, Moldova, China, Belgium, Iran, Ukraine, Italy, and South Korea.

In the South Kazakhstan regions (Shymkent) there is a Free Economic Zone (FEZ), where operate more than ten plants of advanced cotton fiber processing.

The demand for Kazakhstani varieties for genetic pools exchange come from abroad – the United States (Montana), China, Turkey and Pakistan.

The Republic of Kazakhstan, according to the unofficial ranks (2016) takes the 10th place in terms of yield among 95 cotton producing countries.

Now the institute employs 19 scientists, 21 laboratory assistants and technical personnel, 8 administrative personnel and 10 employees of the Ardara branch. Only 58 employees.

The scientists of our Institute also take an active part in solving the government and state goals: development of the law “On development of cotton industry”, “Comprehensive plan to diversify the planting acreage in Maktaaral district”, “Cotton industry development plant for South Kazakhstan region”, “Recovery of vertical drainage wells and irrigation systems in South Kazakhstan region”.