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The most ancient residents of Argos were indigenous Pelasgians (Pelasgian Argos). The first settlers were Phoenician traders followed by Egyptians, led by Inachos around 1986 B.C.

Under the reign of Inachos the city prospered considerably and the residents named Argos and the rest of the Peloponnese: “the land of Inachos”. The river next to the city’s walls was named “Inachon”. Inachos was succeeded by his son Foroneas who created the city of Argos, the “city of Foroneas” which is considered to be the first city in the world. According to tradition, he was the first to discover the fire that burned constantly in the temple of Lycian Apollo, “Foroneas’ fire”. Niobe, the daughter of Foroneas, gave birth to Argos who reigned in the city and gave it its name.

Argos participated in the Trojan War (1193-1184) under the leadership of Diomedes.

The Dorian descent, towards the end of the 12th century B.C., exhausts the Mycenaean state, and Argos becomes the centre of Hellenism. That was when the “great Argeian state” was founded. Temenos, of the Herakleidon line, occupies Argos, and it replaces Mycenae as the royal seat of the Timenides family, becoming the metropolis of the Dorian Argolis. Temenos was, after Foroneas and Danaos, the third founder of Argos.

Argos is traditionally considered to be the origins of the ancient Macedonian royal Greek house of the Argead dynasty. The most celebrated members were Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. As a strategic location on the fertile plain of Argolis, Argos was a major stronghold during the Mycenaean era

In 146 B.C. the Peloponnese becomes a Roman province.

During the Roman sovereignty Argos goes through a new period of prosperity. At the time of Hadrian significant public works are undertaken. The theater is converted in order to support the spectacles of the age, the temple of Serapeio-Asclepeio is turned into Baths, one of the largest and best preserved Roman bath complexes in Greece, the Odeon is built and Hadrian’s aqueduct carries water from Corinthia.

Christianity was probably brought to Argos in the 5th century A.D. by the Apostle Andrew. Numerous Christian temples are erected during this period. During this time the bishop of Argos holds a prominent position in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.

The Byzantine Argos, and generally Argolis, was conquered by the Frankish crusaders shortly after 1204. The last Frankish suzerain, Maria d’Enghien, handed over Argolis with its two major cities, Nafplio and Argos, to the Venetians in 1388.

In the struggle for freedom against the Turks, the city is at the epicenter of events. The city of Argos raised the flag of the Revolution on the 23rd of March 1821, led by Stamatelos Antonopoulos. Since then, Argos was at the heart of the revolution, during which it suffered many disasters. Preparations for the 1st National Assembly –at a time when the Greeks were still fighting for freedom- took place in the Church of S. John, while the 4th National Assembly was held at the Ancient Theatre in 1829. A fighter who has been linked to Argos is I. Makrygiannis, mainly because he stayed in the city for a long time, where he began writing his memoirs.

The generals of the revolution built splendid mansions in the city, fine specimens of which are the mansions of D. Tsokri, Th. Gordonas, D. Kallergis etc., while the Governor Kapodistrias had planned the urban organization of the city and the construction of public buildings to house the different services. In 1831 the 1st Primary school was built.

Towards the end of the 19th century, Argos was again turning into the commercial, industrial and cultural centre of the area. Wealthy merchants erected beautiful Neoclassic buildings, such as the Konstantopoulos Mansion, which was constructed in 1912, designed by E. Ziller, and the Neoclassic Municipal Market built in 1889.

Argos is the largest city in Argolis and a major center for the area.

Since the 2011 local government reform it has been part of the municipality of Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 138.138 km2.   A settlement of great antiquity, Argos has been continuously inhabited as at least a substantial village for the past 7,000 years. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.

Primary economic activity in the area is agriculture. Citrus fruits are the predominant crop, followed by olives and apricots. The area is also famous for its local melon variety. There is also important local production of dairy products, factories for fruits processing.

Considerable remains of the ancient and medieval city survive and are a popular tourist attraction.